I am going to show you a low impedance input transistor preamplifier circuit. Why should we make this circuit? Read before
In an old amplifier circuit, such as in an intercom system Use 2 or more speakers instead of a microphone.
In this case, the voice coil of that speaker has a very low impedance, not more than 20 ohms only Voltage from the voice coil is very low, only less than 0.01V. And older AM radios also use low impedance speakers, too.
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We can increase impedance by using matching transformers. To convert both the higher impedance and voltage. But using transformers will lose high frequency. Therefore use transistor better.
The Common base amplifier or the circuit that connects the base to the ground. (Ground Bases). As in the example in the circuit diagram below is a low impedance amplifier of approximately 50 ohms.
How it works
When considering circuits We can distribute the details as follows
- Transistor-Q1 is an NPN transistor. So, its power supply circuit is + VCC power, by using the + 9V to + 12V power supply through R5 before. And, there is C4 maintain stability as a decoupling to prevent any spike signals.
- R1 and R2 act as the input and output of the transistor.
- The transistor conducts current or amplifies the signal. There must be a bias between the lead base and emitter. The voltage of the base must be higher than the lead emitter.
Therefore use voltage divider circuit with R3, R4 to act as biased of the transistor.
- Capacitor C1 is a signal coupling on the input and prevents DC voltage or noise-free pulses from the front circuit to this circuit.
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- The capacitor C2 is signal-coupling to output and prevents the DC voltage from disturbing the next circuit.
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Customization and experimentation methods
This time it is a test play, supply low voltage test first. And then measure the voltage at the collector lead of Q1. Without entering the signal. We should read half the voltage of the power supply.
If you want the voltage at this point to be greater than half We can do this by changing the value R3 to more values.
If using 9 volts power supply, R3 should be at 6.8K. But If using 12V power supply we should R3 is 12K.
Hum high-frequency protection
The low impedance circuit as the circuit diagram is an easy hum. Especially the signal cables that are twisted together may cause alarms easily.
If high-frequency noise occurs, it is called RF Interference. We use the 0.1uF capacitor at the emitter (E) of transistor Q1 down to the negative voltage (or 0 volts) and in the PCB the device hole is designed to add this device already.
Also: Low noise preamplifier
How to build it
Look at the Actual-size of Single-sided Copper PCB layout below. And the component layout, too.
Check out these related circuits, too:
- Low-Z Microphone Preamplifier
- Dynamic Microphone Preamplifier circuit
- A Microphone From Normal Speaker
Parts you will need
0.25W Resistors, tolerance: 5%
- R1: 1K
- R2: 10K
- R3: 18K or See text
- R4: 2.2K
- R5: 100 ohms
- C1, C4: 100uF 25V Electrolytic
- C2: 4.7uF 25V Electrolytic
- C3: 47uF 25V Electrolytic
- C: 0.1uF 50V Ceramic
- Q1: BC548 or equivalent, 45V 0.1A, NPN Transistor
Read other circuits about transistor preamplifier
Not only this circuit we have other circuits that you should play them with us.
- 4 Preamplifier circuits using Transistors
- Coming soon..
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