Do you like a transistor? Today I am going to 3 transistors audio amplifier circuits.
Why use transistors in the amplifier?
Transistors are devices made of semiconductors. It has many benefits, but the most important and common use is to use it as an amplifier. How? Must … follow to see.
Although currently, we will popular to use an IC in more power amplifier circuits.
But transistors are still widely used. Because they are small in size. And the high gain of current and voltage. It depends on the bias, which can be done easily.
Basic principles of transistors
In general, we can divide the working range of the transistor into 3 ranges:
1. Cut off ( transistor stop) There will not be both the base current (IB) and the collector (IC) flowing through the transistor. There will be some leakage currents which are very rare.
2. Saturated range. There is electricity flowing through the transistor fully Until it saturated. And the current will not increase any more than this. Which we can limit the current flowing through the connection of the resistors.
3. The active range is the period that the transistor operates (conducts current). By driving the collector current (IC) proportional to the base current (IB).
The ratio of these two currents. These two values can find the current gain (hFE) from:
hFE = IC / IB
Therefore, when using the transistor audio amplifier, the circuit works in the active phase. In this experiment, it will take you to learn a simple amplifier circuit. Let’s get started.
Recommended: Learn transistor works here
We have 2 interest experiment.
Simple Microphone audio amplifier
Look at the circuit below. This is the experiment process no.1. We called a simple audio amplifier. It will increase the single from a microphone.
Circuit experiment precess
- Connect the equipment according to the circuit in Figure 1 onto the breadboard. But be careful of the polarity of the device too. Do not connect to the wrong polarity.
- When finished, connect the positive and negative wires, from the 6V power supply.
- Now tap on the MIC1, 2-3 times. We will hear the “popping” sound from the speaker. After that, try to speak on the microphone. You will hear your sound extended through the speakers.
How does it work?
Please look back at Figure 1 again. It is an amplifier circuit from a microphone. When there is an audio signal coming into the MIC1.
When a sound signal comes through the MIC1. And, it is transformed into a small electrical signal fed to Q1 at point A.
In order to amplify the signal first. Which we set as a common emitter amplifier.
There are R1 and R2 to divide the voltage into bias to Q1. But the signal is not strong enough.
At point B. When the signal is increased. Then, send it to both Q2 and Q3 that are connected to a Darlington compound amplifier circuit.
To amplify the signal once more, strong enough to drive through the speaker.
Read others: 3 transistor audio amplifier
Darlington compound amplifier
See in Figure 2 shows the Darlington transistor connection. We connect 2 transistors with exactly the same characteristics. According to the circuit characteristics as in the Figure.
If the gain of each transistor is equal to 100, the total gain will be equal to (100×100) = 10,000.
AM radio receiver with 3 transistor amplifier circuit
This is another example of a simple Experiment 2. Look at the Figure 3. It is a simple experiment with an AM radio receiver circuit.
How it works
By using the L1 coil wrapped on a ferrite rod. One end connects to the anode of D1. The other end of the coil is grounded. There is an adjustable capacitor (VC1) attached to this coil.
When the values of L1 and VC1 resonance with that frequency are complete. The diode D1 detects only the audio signal. To forward to the Q1, amplifying according to the previous principles.
If the sound is very quiet. Try to use headphones instead of speakers. Which can be heard more clearly from the radio station. And helps to cut out outside noise.
One disadvantage is that this circuit is a simple basic tuning circuit, so it may be difficult to tune a station.
Feedback circuit of a transistor amplifier
In addition to learning to connect the audio transistor. We have also studied how to organize the bias circuit to have feedback. There are two types of feedback:
- Positive feedback
Which we will notice from the general audio amplifier. When we turn the microphone towards the speaker We will hear the whistle. Or, the sounds of the feedback signal from the output to the input.
In the direction that is added to the input signal or has the same phase. Causing the signal to be too strong to cause distortion.
- Negative Feedback
The signals from the output fed back to the inputs will cancel out or have opposite phases. Therefore, the sum of the signal is reduced. It helps to improve the stability of the amplifier.
Ways to improve the circuit
Look at Figure 5. We divide R4 values into R4A and R4B, with C2 connecting at the center of both R. Then the other side is to ground. It will provide a little more feedback.
Which will give good results even if the magnification decreases somewhat.
However, the sum of the expansions in the circuit is limited. We then add C2 to reduce negative feedback.
Which this C2, also helps to make the voltage at the emitter pin or the potential voltage at point D more smooth (from Figure 1).
We only limit the sum of the feedback. Because in the basic amplifier circuit, High magnification is more important than high clarity.
How Application it
We like to use this circuit. Used in an intercom. All you need is to do this audio amplifier, add another set. Then connect the cable from the speaker. But should not be extended more than 20 meters.
If you really want to build it for use. Look at the circuit below.
Read next: simple transistor intercom circuits
Only then can it be able to interact with each other. Even being far apart. Playing is not difficult at all.
Check out these related articles, too:
- Morning sun alarm circuit using IC-4011
- LM386 stereo amplifier in bridge 2 watts
- 4 transistor audio amplifier circuit
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