Today I get an email from Kunal Banerjee, send a preamplifier project to published for all to see. It is a very simple amplifier circuit using transistor 2N3904 only. Though very small, but it still has many uses. Also, I am going to show you the tiny amplifier using 2N3904 below.
How it works
He says it low noise than normal IC circuits. and extremely low distortion. Frequency response: 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
It is a high gain but low power output and inverts signal output.
In-circuit diagram or schematic which is set circuit in the common emitter.
In electronics, a common emitter amplifier is used as a voltage amplifier.
In this circuit the base terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the collector is the output, and the emitter is common.
We can use this circuit to increase the lower signal to higher before send to a normal amplifier which low gain but high power.
How to build it
Also He send me the PCB SILK as components layout see below.
And the PCB layout.
C1: 1uF 25V Electrolytic
C2: 0.1uF 50V Ceramic or Mylar
Q1: 2N3904, NPN transistor
Not only that see a higher power amplifier than this below.
Basic transistors amplifier circuit using 2N3904
This is a basic transistor amplifier circuit. It is suitable to learn how the transistor works.
We can divide the operating range of the transistor into 3 ranges.
- CUT-OFF is that the transistor will stop working, in this period there will be no base current (IB) and collector current (IC).
- Saturation range is the period that the current flows through the transistor fully until it reaches saturation. And the current will not flow anymore.
- The active range is the period in which a transistor operates to conduct the current. We can find the current gain (hFE) from hFE = Ic / Ib.
Therefore, using the audio transistor will arrange the circuit to work in the active phase. Which we will use the current gain of the transistor.
Read also: How transistor works
How it works
When there is an input signal, it will pass through C1. To filter out only the sound signal, then feed to Q1 at lead B. It is the first expansion(preamplifier). Which designers organize the amplifier circuit in the common-emitter form.
And, there are R1 and R2 to connect in the voltage divider circuit for the Q1. But the output signal at the collector (C) not strong enough.
It needs to increase this signal by Q2 and Q3 again. Which Q2 and Q3 ต่อกันเป็น the Darlington circuit. It is the connection of 2 transistors with similar characteristics. Therefore the gain is more expansion.
Some people call it hFE2. For example, if each transistor has hFE = 100, the total gain will be equal to (100×100) = 10,000 times. From there, the amplified signal is driven to the SP1 loudspeaker pass C3.
Parts you will need
0.25W Resistors, tolerance: 5%
- R1: 3.3M
- R2: 820K
- R3: 39K
- R4: 10K
- R5: 330 ohms
- C1: 1uF 16V
- C2: 47uF 16V
- C3: 220uF 16V
Semiconductors and others
- Q1: 2SC1815, 45V 0.1A, NPN Transistor
- Q2,Q3: 2N3904, 40V 0.2A NPN transistor
- SP1: 8ohms Speaker 0.5W
- B1: 6V battery
Hand-picked related articles you may want to read:
- 4 transistor audio amplifier circuit
- 5 Simple audio amplifier circuit diagram using transistor
- Dynamic Microphone Preamplifier circuit
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