Normally begin to learn about electronics power supply from the battery.
For example, 9 volts, 1.5 volts, 6 volts etc.
But there is a disadvantage that when using battery power is discharged. I need to buy a new one. Consume more.
We should the dc power supply have a choice of AC voltage. Which it must provide an output voltage as used often is 1.5volt, 3 volts, 4.5 volts, 6v, 9v, and the current is about 1 A.
LM317 voltage selector
When we view many circuit ideas, found that the as figure this below (number second the power supply projects in my life) have the best fit.
We use a dc voltage regulator number LM317T is the heart of the circuit. Featured, is the constant voltage.
Low noise. Almost equal to the voltage of the battery. And short-circuit protection as well.
How it works
When we push power switch (S1) on, the AC-line voltage will pass through a fuse F1 and come to transformer T1 to reduce AC volts down to 12 volts.
Then this current flow through the bridge diode model (D1-D4)-1N4001 to full-wave rectifier as DC current.
And through C1 to filter current to smooth up and has C2 filter ripple signal before into LM317.
LED to display power on the circuit, with R1(2K) currents to reduce it.
Here is the step-by-step process.
- The output voltage is determined by rotating a selector switch S2 a level voltage 1.5,3,4.5,5,6,9 volts respectively.
- C5 (10uF) control impedance and reduce a transient at the output of IC1
- C3 (10uF)- help to reduce the ripple before is amplified when the output voltage rises up.
- C4 (0.1uF) reduce the ripple at the output.
- D5 and D6(1N4001) for protects IC1 from discharging of C3 and C5 respectively. In case the input of IC1 is shorted.
The maximum output current about 1.5A depends on the size of the transformer. We should choose the size of 2A. Or size 1A. For those who want to 1A output current only.
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How to build this project
This project is not used many components so can assemble on the universal PCB board. But can make a PCB as Figure 2. Then, the wiring for circuit wiring and various components can view of the example in Figure 3. What to look out carefully for is the polarity of the electrolytic capacitors and Diodes correctly. Pin of the IC is not an error.
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