# Analog To Digital Converter Circuit Using Simple Parts

Usually, an analog to digital converter circuit or A/D. Need to use a high accurate device and too difficult. But this circuit, The error of all devices does not affect the accuracy of the circuit. We just use the reference voltage only. CR: https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_converter

## How it works

The CA3130 op-amp IC1 is assembled as the comparator circuit. Thus if voltage at the inverting input less than the analog signal at the non-inverting input. The output will be “1” and when FF1 get pulse from the clock pulse generator. Which include of N1 and N2.

While input D of FF1 is still “1” by result of IC1, so cause the output Q is also “1”. The CMOS switch S1 will close circuit, at the same time S2 open circuit. Thus, the capacitor-C2 is charged by the reference voltage (Uref), that by through S1 and R2.

When the C2’s voltage same voltage at the non inverting input, cause the IC1’s output will be “0”. But C2 still continue charging until the next circle clock into the circuit, then cause the output Q of FF1 is “0”, S1 open circuit and S2 close circuit.
This time C2 will discharge through R2,R5 and S2 until voltage at C1 reduce lower than the analog input. And when output of IC1 is “1” again that next cycle, output Q of FF1 will be “1” again and the same operational continually.

Since the capacitor C2 is charged and discharged in exponential form. Thus the signal input is long times C2 will get the charging, and C2 will discharge in short times range.

This result cause output of IC1 has square waveform that duty cycle is proportion with analog input. However, the circuit is working properly, only the first input, C1 is charged up, the voltage across it is zero.

When switch to “Start” is pressed, Signal change will start,begin with set value to FF2 cause IC5 and IC6 that is counter circuit, start up both Ics acts as the pulse counter. IC6 will count all pulse, but IC5 will count while output Q of FF1 is “1” only.

When output Q12 of IC6 is “1” FF2 will be reset and changing will be end. The number of cycle at IC5 count will be proportional to the duty cycle from output Q of FF1. Which is related to the analog input..

If reference voltage is 2.048 fitted, IC5 will the 1000 fitted, same the input is 1V. By value a linear change of 1%. Because this circuit IC1 is used Ob Amps (Numbers LF357). Therefore, it requires a symmetrical dual supply well. For the frequency of the clock signal in this circuit can be changed. By changing the value of C3 (lowest 390 pF at 50 Hz).

For tuning the circuit to short circuit input to ground, then adjust P1 until the counting from IC5 is “0”. And the testing all by take the reference voltage into the analog input, at output of IC5 will must be “1” all pins (can count as 2047)

How to builds
First of all, you need to buy all parts then make the PCB

Next assemble all parts on PCB as components layout.

Parts you will need
IC1___CA3130___Op Amp, BiMOS, MOSFET Inputs, CMOS Outputs, 15MHz
IC2___CD4013___CMOS DUAL D-TYPE FLIP-FLOP
IC4___CD4023___Buffered Triple 3-Input NAND/NOR Gate
IC2_________CD4040___12 Stage Binary Ripple Counter DIP-16
C1,C2_____0.47uF 50V___Ceramic capacitor
C3________0.0022 50V___Ceramic capacitor
C4________1uF 35V_____Tantalum capacitor
C5_________100pF 50V____Ceramic capacitor
C6_________0.001uF 50V____Ceramic capacitor
ETC…

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