This circuit is used for controls the voltage battery is steady, which the zener diode apply very low current about 1mA only, cause there is ripple voltage about 1 mV at voltage changing between 10 to 30 volts. As circuit the output is fixed to 8V. In circuit the reference voltage is connected to input […]
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This complementary common-emitter circuit has special feature that can be applied in 2 model. – Low distortion buffer – The low power output circuit How it works In Figure 1 quiescent current flow through T1 and T2 as voltage (U) and R1, R2 sequence. Look at the circuit will see that difference normal circuit at […]
We can use a CMOS nand gate or inverter gate and two transistors into the current controlled oscillator circuit (CCO). In Figure 1 use two inverters are connected together as a astable multivibrator circuit. Figure 1 the normal astable multivibrator CCO circuit. If the output of N1 is “0”, and C1 will start be charged […]
This is non-inverting integrator circuit that is improved that below. The obstacles of old integrator as Figure 1, is Connection of RC is at a virtual ground, cause C into the capacitive load across output of op-amp. It makes an impact on the Slew rate of the circuit. May solve this problem in a circuit […]
This voltage to frequency converter circuit use the CA3130 OP-Amp ICs, that linearity Of changing is very well up to 0.5% and Temperature coefficient of less than 0.01% per degree Celsius. In Figure 1, IC1 act as the frequency generator is controlled by voltage. Suppose, first the output voltage of IC1 is + 15V. C1 […]